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Information foraging


Information Foraging Theory is an approach to understanding how strategies and technologies for information seeking, gathering, and consumption are adapted to the flux of information in the environment. The theory assumes that people, when possible, will modify their strategies or the structure of the environment to maximize their rate of

gaining valuable information. Field studies inform the theory by illustrating that people do freely structure their environments and their strategies to yield higher gains in information foraging. The theory is developed by (a) adaptation (rational) analysis of

information foraging problems and (b) a detailed process model (ACT-IF). The adaptation analysis develops (a) information patch models, which deal with time allocation and information filtering and enrichment activities in environments in which information is encountered in clusters (e.g., bibliographic collections), (b) information

scent models which address the identification of information value from proximal cues, and (c) information diet models which address decisions about the selection and pursuit of information items. ACT-IF is developed to instantiate these rational models and to fit the moment-by-moment behavior of people interacting with complex information technology. ACT-IF is a production system in which the information scent of bibliographic stimuli is calculated by spreading activation mechanisms. Time allocation and item selection heuristics make use of information scent to select production rules in ways that maximize information foraging activities.


Pirolli, P. L. ; Card, S. K. Information foraging. Psychological Review. 1999; 106 (4): 643-675.