Indium versus hydrogen-terminated GaN(0001): Surfactant effect of indium in a chemical vapor deposition environment
First-principles pseudopotential density functional calculations of the relative stability of H and In-terminated GaN(0001) surfaces are reported. These total energy calculations show that surfaces terminated by one or two monolayers of In are more stable under typical metal-organic vapor deposition conditions than the possible H-terminated surface structures that have been proposed. Indium may act as a surfactant to improve the growth morphology of GaN films grown by metal-organic vapor deposition via a mechanism similar to that operative in molecular beam epitaxy.
Northrup, J. E. ; Van de Walle, C. G. Indium versus hydrogen-terminated GaN(0001): Surfactant effect of indium in a chemical vapor deposition environment. Applied Physics Letters. 2004 May 24; 84 (21): 4322-4324.