Metal-adlayer-stabilized ZnO(0001) surfaces: toward a new growth mode for oxides
First-principles total energy calculations were performed for clean and In-rich ZnO(0001) surfaces. The calculations indicate that In can form a stable adlayer in Zn-rich conditions. This result suggests that In may serve as a surfactant for the growth of ZnO. In contrast, Zn adlayers themselves are not likely to form in equilibrium conditions on the (0001) surface.
Northrup, J. E. ; Neugebauer, J. Metal-adlayer-stabilized ZnO(0001) surfaces: toward a new growth mode for oxides. Applied Physics Letters. 2005 October 3; 87 (14): 141914.