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SENSOR project overview video


Under the ARPA-E Advanced Management and Protection of Energy-Storage Devices (AMPED) program for advanced battery management systems, PARC and LG Chem Power (LGCPI) are developing SENSOR (Smart Embedded Network of Sensors with an Optical Readout), an optically based smart monitoring system prototype for battery packs. The system will use fiber optic sensors embedded inside Lithium-ion battery cells to measure parameters indicative of cell state online, such as state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH). SENSOR will leverage PARC's low-cost, compact wavelength-shift detection technology and intelligent algorithms to enable effective real-time performance management, optimized battery design, and improved safety. While SENSOR is initially targeting batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs), it will be extendable to battery systems for other challenging domains such as aircrafts, satellites, grid storage, and military vehicles.

These videos give an overview of the project, enabling technologies, and summarize key results on cell-level state features detectable, cell state estimation algorithm development, low-cost optical readout development, and early validation test results. Initial module-level tests using large-format test xEV cells with embedded fiber-optic (FO) sensors have been successful. At this stage, we are working on hardening the technology for use in fielded battery management systems. General Motors is leading independent validation of SENSOR in larger xEV modules at their battery facility. PARC is also engaging with other battery industry stakeholders interested in evaluating, further testing, and licensing SENSOR. Contact PARC to learn more: engage@parc.com.






A short demonstration video of PARC’s high-resolution, multiplexed fiber-optic sensing readout


An overview talk on SENSOR presented at the Battery Show 2015 in Novi, Michigan

Download the slides for the above talk


This earlier video offers an overview of the problem, and an introduction of the project, the underlying enabling technologies, and various possible spin-off applications.


patent publications

Monitoring and management for energy storage devices
A Raghavan, P Kiesel, B Saha
US Patent App. 13/630,660

Monitoring/Managing Electrochemical Energy Device Using Detected Intercalation Stage Changes
P Kiesel, LW Sommer, A Raghavan, B Saha, T Staudt, A Lochbaum
US Patent App. 14/242,853

Sensor Apparatus and Method Based on Wavelength Centroid Detection
P Kiesel, A Lochbaum, A Raghavan, B Saha, T Staudt, LW Sommer
US Patent 20,150,185,139

Embedded Fiber Optic Cables for Battery Management
A Raghavan, P Kiesel, LW Sommer, B Saha, S Sahu, A Lochbaum, T Staudt, C-J Bae, M Alamgir, HJ Hah, B Choi, G-K Hwang, G-C Chung
US Patent App 20160028129 A1

Battery with Embedded Fiber Optic Cable
C-J Bae, EJ Shrader, A Raghavan, P Kiesel, S Sahu
US Patent App 20160028102 A1

Method for Monitoring/Managing Electrochemical Energy Device by Detecting Intercalation Stage Changes
B Saha, A Raghavan, P Kiesel, LW Sommer, A Lochbaum, T Staudt, S Sahu, A Ganguli
US Patent App EP 2928006 A1

Energy System Monitoring
A Hegyi, P Kiesel, A Raghavan
US Patent App 20160018319 A1

Battery Management Based on Internal Optical Sensing
A Raghavan, P Kiesel, A Lochbaum, B Saha, LW Sommer, T Staudt
US Patent App 20150303723 A1 

1 other pending patent applications

information sheet

download information sheet in English | Japanese




blog post

Shedding light on advanced batteries to manage them better
10 September 2014 | Ajay Raghavan 




ARPA-E Summit
29 February - 2 March 2016 | Washington DC 

The Battery Show
15 - 17 September 2015 | Novi, MI 

ARPA-E AMPED annual meeting
1 January 2015 | Washington DC