Automated fault detection in violation enforcement cameras within electronic toll collection systems
Electronic Toll Collection facilities offer travelers the ability to pay toll electronically, most commonly via Radio Frequency Identification transponders placed within the vehicle. ETCs are complex systems comprising a multitude of sensing and electronic equipment. To prevent violation, photo enforcement cameras are used to capture license plate images of the violating vehicle. To ensure adequate image quality and integrity of these cameras, it is standard maintenance practice to manually review camera images on a periodic basis. The manual review process can be expensive, error prone and may involve only a fraction of the images actually captured. To address this problem, we present algorithmic tools that can be used to automatically review images to detect any potential camera faults, thus, reduce human workload and increase maintenance efficiency. Wherever possible, we use no-reference or reduced-reference approaches for fault detection.
Ganguli, A.; Raghavan, A.; Kozitsky, V.; Burry, A. Automated fault detection in violation enforcement cameras within electronic toll collection systems. International IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems; 2013 October 6-9; The Hague, Netherlands.